The use of greenspace has been linked to multiple wellbeing benefits, however there are many factors that influence whether or not residents visit greenspace. In this study, we explore the factors that influence the frequency of greenspace visitation, with a focus on perceptions of walkability, travel mode, and proximity to greenspace.
Urban resilience emerges not only from ‘what’ is done in relation to critical infrastructure systems, but in the ‘how’ of their conception, co-creation and integration into complex socio-ecological-technical systems. For green infrastructure, where ownership and agency may be distributed amongst organisations and diverse communities, inclusiveness and appropriateness require embedding in engineering assessments of green infrastructure and resilience.
A.A. Zuniga-Teran and A.K. Gerlak. Greenspace can alleviate many of the negative effects of urbanization and help enhance human well-being yet, in most cities in the world, greenspace is inequitably distributed. In western societies, wealthy white neighborhoods typically have more access to greenspace, constituting an environmental and social justice issue. Although scholars from multiple disciplines and academic domains study questions of justice in greenspace, the scholarship remains fragmented.
T. Albrecht, A.B. Crootof, and C.A. Scott. The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is rapidly expanding in scholarly literature and policy settings as a novel way to address complex resource and development challenges. The nexus approach aims to identify tradeoffs and synergies of water, energy, and food systems, internalize social and environmental impacts, and guide development of cross-sectoral policies.
Transboundary waters are characterized by diverse and complex socio-politico-economic obstacles to effective water management. We examine five distinct cases in the arid Americas – in locations from the US–Mexico border to the Andes mountains – employing water security as a conceptual prism to unravel the multiple and varied attributes of transboundary water challenges.
The Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework serves as a valuable framework to explore and understand social and ecological interactions, and pathways in water governance. Yet, it lacks a robust understanding of change. We argue an analytical and methodological approach to engaging global changes in SES is critical to strengthening the scope and relevance of the SES framework. Relying on SES and resilience thinking, we propose an institutional and cognitive model of change that institutions and natural resources systems co-evolve to provide a dynamic understanding of SES that stands on three causal mechanisms: institutional complexity trap, rigidity trap, and learning processes.
The authors quantify the spatial subsidies—a measure of the mismatch between where people receive economic benefits from a migratory species and where the migratory species receives ecological benefits from ecosystems—generated by the annual monarch migration across eastern North America.
Scott, C.A., A. Lutz Ley. 2016 in press. Enhancing water governance for climate resilience: Arizona, USA - Sonora, Mexico comparative assessment of the role of reservoirs in adaptive management for water security. In C. Tortajada (ed.) Increasing Resilience to Climate Variability and Change: The Role of Infrastructure and Governance in the Context of Adaptation, Springer, Berlin.
The crucial role of groundwater and the centrality of water governance in accommodating growing water demands sustainably are becoming well recognized. We review 10 case studies of groundwater governance—representing diverse global regions and local contexts—from the perspective of four well-established elements: (1) institutional setting; (2) availability and access to information and science; (3) robustness of civil society; and (4) economic and regulatory frameworks.
Enter the 'nexus' of multiple resources, linked in turn to management and policy frameworks, and embedded in broader political processes. The nexus conceptually links multiple resource-use practices and serves paradigmatically to understand interrelations among such practices that were previously considered in isolation. Here we will demonstrate that resource recovery is at the core of operationalizing the nexus. This is fundamentally different from efficiency and productivity, although nexus practices can be seen in terms of deriving increased output from limited resources.
Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana).
Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time.
The privatization of water supply and wastewater systems, together with institutional restructuring of governance – through decentralization and the penetration of global firms in local and regional markets – have been promoted as solutions to increase economic efficiency and achieve universal water supply and sanitation coverage. Yet a significant share of service provision and water resources development remains the responsibility of public authorities. The chapters in this book – with case evidence from Argentina, Chile, France, the USA, and other countries – address critical questions that dominate the international agenda on public versus private utilities, service provision, regulations, and resource development.
Based on a survey of U.S. Forest Service staff, evaluates the potential of using an ecosystem services approach as part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact assessment process.
Includes detailed case studies of the water-climate "vulnerability and adaptation" situation for four communities: Tucson, Ariz.; the twinned border cities of Nogales, Ariz., and Nogales, Son.; Hermosillo, Son.; and Puerto Peñasco, Son.
Discusses the unique role of Antarctica (as part of the global commons) in the global warming scenario, the strategic role of Antarctic science and information related to global warming policy, and related institutional arrangements and policy challenges.
Report of the Strategy Forum on Transboundary Environments and Adaptation to Climate Change convened at WILD9 (9th World Wilderness Conference), Mérida, Mexico, supported by the U.S. Forest Service Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute.
Suggests a novel approach to the management of the U.S.-Mexico transboundary environment, framing the conservation of the natural resources shared by the two countries in terms of shared ecosystem services and presenting three cases as examples.
Citron, A. 2008. Incorporating Flexibility into Conservation Easements. Winner of the 2007 Lillian S. Fisher Prize in Environmental Law and Policy. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy: Tucson, AZ. 53pp.
Morehouse, B., D. Ferguson, G. Owen, A. Browning-Aiken, P. Wong-Gonzales, N. Pineda, M. Wilder, and R.G. Varady. 2008. Science and socio-ecological sustainability: Examples from the Arizona-Sonora border. Environmental Science and Policy, 11(3):272-84.
Scott, C.A., F. Flores-López, and J.R. Gastélum. 2007. Appropriation of Río San Juan by Monterrey City, Mexico: Implications for agriculture and basin water sharing. Paddy and Water Environment 5(4):253-62.
Shah, T., C.A. Scott, J. Berkoff, A. Kishore, A. Sharma. 2007. Energy-irrigation nexus in South Asia: Pricing versus rationing as practical tool for efficient resource allocation. In F. Molle and J. Berkoff (eds.) Irrigation Water Pricing: The Gap Between Theory and Practice. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 208-232.
Varady, R.G., and A. Browning-Aiken. 2005. The birth of a Mexican watershed council in the San Pedro basin in Sonora. In Planeación y Cooperación Transfronteriza en la Frontera México-Estados Unidos (Transboundary Planning and Cooperation in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region), ed. by C. Fuentes-Flores and S. Peña-Medina. Ciudad Juárez , Mexico: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte & Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ambiente y Desarrollo. pp. 165-83.
Browning-Aiken, A., H. Richter, D. Goodrich, B. Strain, and R.G. Varady. 2004. Upper San Pedro Basin: fostering collaborative binational watershed management. International Journal of Water Resources Development 20(3):353-67. [pdf]
Liverman, D., R.G. Varady, O. Chávez, R. Sánchez, A. Browning-Aiken, and L. Stauber. 2004. Asuntos ambientales en la frontera México-Estados Unidos: Temas y acciones. In Fronteras en América del Norte: Estudios multidisciplinarios, ed. by A. Mercado Celis and E. Gutiérrez Romero. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Investigaciones Sobre América del Norte. pp. 279-293.
Scott, C.A. and T. Shah. 2004. Groundwater overdraft reduction through agricultural energy policy: insights from India and Mexico. International Journal of Water Resources Development 20(2): 149-164. [pdf]
Coker, Mich. 2003. Saving the Sierra: Alternative Mechanisms for Conserving Northern Mexico’s Last Wild Places. Winner of the 2002 Lillian S. Fisher Prize in Environmental Law and Public Policy. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy: Tucson, AZ. 20pp.
Lemos, M.C., D. Austin, R. Merideth, and R. G. Varady. 2002. Public-private partnerships as catalysts for community-based water infrastructure development: The Border WaterWorks Program in Texas and New Mexico colonias, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 20(2):281-95.
Moote, A., Maria Gutierrez, and Allison Howarth. 2001. Sustainability of Water Resources in the Upper San Pedro River Basin: Results of a Survey of Mexican Residents. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy: Tucson, AZ. 124pp.
Varady, R.G., K.B. Hankins, A. Kaus, E. Young, and R. Merideth. 2001. ...to the Sea of Cortes: nature, water, culture, and livelihood in the Lower Colorado River basin and delta--an overview of issues, policies, and approaches to environmental restoration, Journal of Arid Environments 49(9):195-209.
Varady, R.G., R.G. Arnold, D.E. Carter, Guzmán, Peña, and W. Suk. 2000. Hazardous waste and the U.S.-Mexico border region: Toward a binational university-based institutional landscape, Environmental Practice 2(1):38-45.
Burkhart, F.N., C.F. Hutchinson, and M. Saint-Germain, eds. 1990. Global Climate Change: The Meeting of Science and PolicyConference Proceedings (May 20, 1989, Tucson, AZ). Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy: Tucson, AZ. 34pp.